Management depends on patients’ hemodynamic status. In most patients, percutaneous lead extraction is a safe and effective management approach (3). Emergent surgical management is required if the patient is hemodynamically unstable or if the patient has a large pericardial effusion where tamponade may be imminent or a large pleural effusion with respiratory impairment is present or imminent. No consensus exists regarding the appropriate management of lead perforation in stable patients without symptoms or the management of chronic lead perforation without pacemaker malfunction.
- Lead Perforation: Incidence in Registries. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. Volume 31, Issue 1, pages 13–15, January 2008
- Case of early right ventricular pacing lead perforation and review of the literature. World J Clin Cases. Jun 16, 2014; 2(6): 206-208
- Incidence, management, and prevention of right ventricular perforation by pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Dec;37(12):1602-9